Ostensibly, the photographs included in these memoirs are from the authors' personal collections and often taken by the author herself; Iliff and Arnold and Reed 88 make mention of their cameras in the body of the texts. Iliff is the only memoirist to indicate copyright on some of the photographs in her book, but the history of those photographs raises some significant questions about the uses of photography in these texts more generally. It appears Jack Riddle was an amateur photographer, given the lack of a copyright invocation, and possibly a colleague.
View all notes. To different extents, all of the authors are motivated to share their ethnographic knowledge, and to teach their readers about the cultures that they have experienced, in part through the insertion of photographs and corresponding captions. The juxtaposition of both these types of images in each memoir exemplifies the central paradox of these texts. This paradox, which is central to the stories these women tell, is even more evident in the pictures they choose to include. See also Alison; and Capture.
Carter and Watson both make a similar claim about the choice to teach Native American children; they read these memoirs as protofeminist texts that suggested potential ways for white women to exist outside of traditional gender and sexuality norms. This question has also been central to discussions of imagery of Native Americans in photography, and who has the right to display these images. When considering the use of imagery in these memoirs, though, the authors are sometimes neither the photographer nor the photographed subject, but rather a third party: the teller of the story who is using the photography by and of others to illustrate her life narrative.
Autobiographers use others all the time to tell their stories; as G. Ruth Behar explores this issue of vulnerability in the context of anthropology. The four other memoirs were either self-published or published by regional presses, although In the Land of the Grasshopper Song was reprinted by the University of Nebraska Press Bison Books in View all notes It also exemplifies the ethnographic impulses of the books as a whole; as in the other texts, the photography is included mostly for its ethnographic content.
James is also a character in the memoir, because Iliff accompanied him on an expedition to the bottom of Havasu Canyon in , a trip that no white person had undertaken before Iliff — Her explorations lead her to find what she expects to find, and she explicates many aspects of Havasupai and Walapai culture throughout her text, which recounts her experiences teaching at a day school for the Walapai, traveling into the canyon to serve as a temporary superintendent for the Havasupai, and then returning to teach at a new boarding school in Truxton, Arizona.
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She uses her first-hand observations of individual students and their families as a way to inform her reader about Walapai and Havasupai customs more generally. With it were burned many of their household possessions. Although the specific ritual varies across the tribes, almost every memoirist includes some comment on mourning practices.
View all notes In this sense, Iliff embraces a culturally pluralistic view, in which the two religions are able to coexist acceptably. Thus, the tolerance that Iliff evinces for the customs and beliefs of her students and their families is contingent on the situation and the actual belief.
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However, even more than her writing, her photographs and the accompanying captions exhibit her ambivalence about these, usually contradictory, roles. The section of twenty-two photographs, which are clustered together in the middle of the text, begins with a conventional school picture, indeed the representative image of the boarding school project: two lines of children, in militaristic uniform, arranged in front of a school building figure 1 , top image. The bottom image in figure 1 breaks from convention by showing schoolchildren in school dress but in a more naturalistic setting.
In only three other instances does Iliff name the subjects of her photographs and provide direct links to the narrative by referencing events she has recounted in the text. In the bottom caption, Iliff reiterates her discomfort with native medicine, which is a consistent theme in the book and an area in which her usually culturally pluralistic attitude breaks down. She admits in the text that her doubts about this strategy were undermined by its apparent success Iliff —a common observation in these narratives. Nevertheless, the caption continues by stressing the superstitions of the Walapai; since she herself had entered the ghost cave and emerged unscathed, her evocation of Walapai beliefs here is meant to undermine them.
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Iliff could have identified more, or different, students or not mentioned any of them by name. Instead, by highlighting Mike and Ben, two students with diametrically opposed experiences with Walapai medicine, Iliff begins the balancing act between cultural pluralism and assimilation that will characterize the rest of the photography section, and is evident in the photographs across the narratives. In the following pages, Iliff constructs a museum in two dimensions, fully embracing the role of amateur ethnographer and evincing a desire to document the Walapai and Havasupai culture.
Stick is used to pry plant from the ground. In captions that guide the reader as they would in any museum exhibition, Iliff documents Havasupai cooking customs and vessels, various types of architecture, and even cave painting. Pierce Collection of Photographs, c. Pierce or his associates at the time that the photographs were either taken or purchased. Although this picture is included to illustrate her personal experiences with the tribe, her decision to generalize in the caption is in keeping with the ethnographic valence of the photography section.
By unnaming them or really, their father , Iliff renders these subjects visually present but textually absent, highlighting her role at the center of the autobiography, even as her experience and expertise are dependent on her relationship with them and many of the other unnamed members of the tribe pictured in the memoir.
Gertrude Golden, in particular, includes a vast array of images of people from various tribes. Although she traveled extensively and worked in many different locations, at least two of the photographs reference tribal affiliations from areas far from where she worked, which suggests that she did not take the photographs herself. View all notes This decision is representative of the damaging conglomeration of Native American tribes in the popular culture of both periods, and the perpetuation of stereotypical, decontextualized images of Native Americans circulating on postcards and in other venues throughout the early twentieth century Preucel For an engagement with Native American images on postcards, see Albers and James.
Pierce, a photographer and businessman who acquired a vast archive of images of Native Americans, the West and the Southwest over the first three decades of the twentieth century. The majority of the photographs that Iliff attributes to Pierce appear to have been taken by George Wharton James, the ethnographer, photographer, and author whom Iliff quotes throughout the text and with whom Iliff traveled down Havasu Canyon. At least three of the photographs credited to Pierce were likely taken by James around or ; identical prints in the C.
While the other pictures attributed to James are not date-stamped photCL ; photCL; photCL; photCL , they would have likely been taken and sold in the same period. View all notes Iliff did not take these photographs, which the attribution to Pierce on the images makes clear. Perhaps more importantly, however, the pictures were taken at least a year or two before Iliff even arrived in Arizona, a fact that is not mentioned anywhere in the book.
The substance of the photographs would have remained consistent—after all, it is just a year or two later—but the inclusion of these photographs, along with others credited to Pacific Stereopticon Co. Housed in the C. Later, when a very old man, he was converted to the Christian religion. Her home is typical of the Havasupai house of a generation ago. Not only do these homes look more like modern American houses, but the fencing is indicative of a central tenet of federal Indian policy that proved disastrous for many tribes: the breaking up of communally held lands into individual plots.
The photograph in figure 3 is unusual because it is the only photograph that seems to have been taken closer to when the book was published than to when it was set — The photographer credited on it, Al Achterberg, was a photojournalist in Nebraska who did not even start taking pictures until Achterberg The s marked a dramatic shift in federal policy toward Native Americans, a shift that was in many ways a return to the ideology of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries—the setting of these memoirs.
By the s, the boarding school model of Indian education was in decline Jacobs , In , Congress passed the Indian Reorganization Act, which reversed earlier policies and embraced aspects of native cultures. Educationally, this meant the abandonment of the boarding school system in favor of community schools, an emphasis on vocational education, and the inclusion of indigenous cultures in school curricula Burt 52; Fixico xiii.
According to Fixico, cases of termination were initiated, affecting a minimum of 1,, acres and 11, individuals View all notes Under termination, certain tribes were deemed ready to be independent of their ward status, and thus their trust relationship with the government was dissolved. Some younger Indians supported termination Fixico Along with termination, the government instituted a relocation program, which subsidized adults who wanted to move off a reservation to big cities, and provided education and job training Fixico ; the Havasupai were encouraged to relocate in Approximately 61, Native Americans received vocational training under the relocation program Fixico Given this context, the attitudes that the memoirists exhibit about the enforced assimilation in which they took part in the early twentieth century are applicable to debates about termination and relocation that were occurring around the time of the texts' publication.
In the final chapter, Iliff describes returning to Arizona in , and reflects on the changes that had occurred. In this way, Iliff reminds the reader of the necessity of her documentary project in the face of her assimilationist one; her description of returning to Arizona suggests that the vanishing she anticipated, and helped to bring about, has, at least in some sense, actually happened. The authors' engagement with ethnography and their impulse to record a vanishing culture reinforces the notion that these tribes are already in the process of disappearing when they arrive.
This notion of guilt is especially applicable to teachers like Iliff and the other memoirists, who had a direct and personal responsibility to destroy native culture. Given the prevalence of images of Native Americans in photography since its inception, and the renewed interest in Indians in the s, it is not surprising that some of these images would have reinscribed popular stereotypes about Native Americans.
In addition to reinforcing the notion of the Vanishing American and highlighting the primitiveness both of the people and their surroundings, photographs across the texts bolster the idea of the Noble Savage, the long-suffering Indian who contains the wisdom of the ages. See Berkhofer; S. Smith ; and Vickers. In the Birch Woods of Belarus: A Partisan's Revenge will give readers a new understanding of the partisans and their contributions.
They will understand better that Jews did resist when they could. This memoir will captivate students and adults alike, showing the courage and love of a young man for his family and his religion. Sidney Simon is a role model not only for his bravery but also for his resilience, from despair comes hope—the blessings of love and family.
After witnessing those horrors, Bella returned home to her parents in Skrzynno, seeking shelter and safety. Bella found neither shelter nor safety for six long years. Escaping her hometown, Bella began her torturous journey to freedom. In those labor camps, Bella sewed uniforms, painted signs, and welded for the Nazis.
Along the way, she endured death journeys on foot and by train.
Yet despite her own pain and guilt, Bella saved the lives of two especially fragile women. When Bergen-Belsen was liberated on April 15, , Bella remained there, waiting for news of surviving family members. Despite her depression, she assisted other survivors in locating their families.
Best of all she fell in love at first sight with Paul Fox, a Holocaust survivor from Wloclawek, Poland. In , the couple married and immigrated to the United States, where Bella finally found shelter and safety.
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Their child, Elan, was born in Although coping with many difficulties, the family eventually prospered in San Francisco, opening a kosher deli and a catering business. Bella and Henry live in San Francisco surrounded by their loving children, grandchildren, and great grandchildren. The life story of this gitte neshuma , beautiful soul, will be an inspiration.
Fred Spiegel was born in a small German town in Like Anne Frank, Fred and his sister, Edith, relocated to Netherlands, and were subjected to persecution after the German army invaded and occupied the Netherlands in May The Spiegel children, separated from their mother, were sent to transit camp Westerbork in the Netherlands. Then they were transported east, ending up in the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp. The two survived the war and reunited with their mother in England in the fall of Fred later lived in Israel and Chile before immigrating to the U.
Fred's memoir, Once the Acacias Bloomed: Memories of a Childhood Lost , deepens our understanding of the world during the Shoah, as seen through the eyes of a child. ISBN X. Joseph Steinberg was born in Svalyava, Czechoslovakia, in , a time of stability, tolerance, and democracy. In Joseph's hometown Jews and non-Jews lived in harmony.
But by , Hitler' Germany and neighboring states such as Hungary were negotiating for parts of Czechoslovakia. Occupied by Hungary in , the Jews of Svalyava were subjected to harsh antisemitic laws. By November , forced labor became obligatory for all Jewish males between the ages of 21 and These labor battalions, conscripted by the Hungarian regime, were stationed all over Hungary and beyond, including on the Eastern Front.
Jews in these units were treated deplorably and subjected to atrocities, such as marching into mine fields to clear areas so that the regular troops could advance. Thousands died from abuse, cold, malnourishment, and disease. Some labor units were entirely wiped out during the fighting, especially at Stalingrad. Ironically, after Germany occupied Hungary in March , the labor service offered the possibility for thousands of Jews who otherwise would have been deported to death camps.
Joseph's brothers Mark and David were also drafted into labor battalions, serving on the Eastern Front.
Joseph survived the siege of Budapest in December , only to be sent on a forced march to Koszeg labor camp on the Austrian border. They have three children and six grandchildren-a very close and loving family. Joseph Steinberg's memoir is one of the few about a survivor of the Hungarian Labor Service. As his memoir's title, Death, Hideous, Hovers Overhead , attests, Joseph's life in the labor force was perilous.