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The African roots of ancient American civilizations
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- African Empires in Ancient America by Clyde Winters.
- The African roots of ancient American civilizations.
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Books by Clyde Winters. Much of Mali fell to the Songhai Empire in the western Sudan during the 15 th century.
- Tod im Albtal (Swentja Tobler) (German Edition).
- The Finer Things.
- Ancient Africa for Kids: Summary;
Complex, advanced lake states, located between Lakes Victoria and Edward, were established, including kingdoms ruled by the Bachwezi, Luo, Bunyoro, Ankole, Buganda, and Karagwe--but little is known of their early history. Engaruka, a town of 6, stone houses in Tanzania, played a key role in the emergence of Central African empires. Bunyoro was the most powerful state until the second half of the 18th century, with an elaborate centralized bureaucracy: most district and subdistrict chiefs were appointed by the kabaka "king". Farther to the south, in Rwanda, a cattle-raising pastoral aristocracy founded by the Bachwezi called Bututsi, or Bahima, in this area ruled over settled Bantu peoples from the 16th century onward.
I ndonesian immigrants reached Madagascar during the 1st millennium CE bringing new foodstuffs, notably bananas, which soon spread throughout the continent, and Arab settlers colonized the coast and established trading towns. By the 13th century a number of significant Zenj city-states had been established, including Mogadishu, Malindi, Lamu, Mombasa, Kilwa, Pate, and Sofala.
The African roots of ancient American civilizations
An urban Swahili culture developed through mutual assimilation of Bantu and Arabic speakers. These mercantile city-states were oriented toward the sea, and their political impact on inland peoples was virtually nonexistent until the 19th century. The Karanga peoples formed the Mwene Mutapa Empire, which derived its wealth from large-scale gold mining.
At its height in the 15th century, its sphere of influence stretched from the Zambezi River, to the Kalahari, to the Indian Ocean and the Limpopo River. The Portuguese explorations were motivated by a desire for knowledge, a wish to bring Christianity to what they perceived as pagan peoples, the search for potential allies against Muslim threats, and the hope of finding new and lucrative trade routes and sources of wealth.
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With the complicity and blessings of the Catholic church. Slavery in Africa: It is true that African societies did have various forms of slavery and dependent labor before their interaction with Arabs and Europeans that invaded Africa, especially in nonegalitarian centralized African states, but scholars argue that indigenous slavery was relatively a marginal aspect of traditional African societies.
Many forms of servitude and slavery were relatively benign, an extension of lineage and kinship systems. Slaves and servants were often well-treated and could rise to respected positions in households and communities.
African social hierarchies and conditions of servitude were mitigated by complex, extended kinship relationships, based on community, group, clan, and family. Ethnic rivalries and hostilities did exist, as did ethnocentrism a belief that one's group and its lifeways are superior to those of other groups , but the concept of race was a foreign import. The adoption of Islamic concepts of slavery made it a legitimate fate for non-believers but an illegal treatment for Muslims.
In the forest states of West Africa, such as Benin and Kongo, slavery was an important institution before the European arrival, African rulers seeking to enslave other African groups, rather than their own people, to enhance their wealth, prestige, and control of labor. However, the Atlantic Slave Trade opened up greatly expanded opportunities for large-scale economic trade in human beings--chattel slavery--on an unprecedented scale. An uncompromising warrior-king, Ali Ber extended the Songhai empire by controlling the Niger River with a navy of war vessels. He also refused to accept Islam, and instead advanced African traditions.
According to Microsoft Encarta Africana , "[b]etween the fifteenth and nineteenth centuries, the Edo ruled the powerful kingdom of Benin. Today approximately 1 million people consider themselves Edo. African gold, ivory, foodstuffs, and slaves were exchanged for ironware, firearms, textiles, and foodstuffs. During his reign which ended in , Askia Muhammad made Songhai the largest empire in the history of west Africa.
History of Sub-Saharan Africa | Essential Humanities
He restored the previously discouraged tradition of Islamic learning to the University of Sankore, and Timbuktu or Tombouctou, population 50, became known as a major center of Islamic learning and book trade. The empire went into decline, however, after , when the now-blind Askia Muhammad was deposed by his son. Rise of Axum or Aksum Ethiopia and conversion to Christianity. Bantu migration extends to southern Africa; Bantu languages will predominate in central and southern Africa.
Islam sweeps across North Africa; Islamic faith eventually extends into many areas of sub-Saharan African to ca. Islamicized Africans Moors invade Spain, and rule it unti1 According to traditional historical interpretations, a Berber army from Morocco led by militant religious reformers called Almoravids attacked Ghana, led it into a period of internal conflicts and disorganization, then by , lost control of the empire to the Soninkes.
Zimbabwe meaning "stone house" or building , some of which are massive, constructed in southeastern Africa by ancestors of the Shona peoples of modern Zimbabwe. Ife-Ife, Yoruban culture of non-Bantu Kwa-speakers, flourished in western Africa, producing remarkable terra cotta and bronze portrait heads, continuing Nok creative traditions.